sábado, 31 de octubre de 2009

O SAMHAIM



Segundo as nosas vellas tradicións, as almas viñan á terra no "día de defuntos" con moi diversas fins. Por iso nuns lugares púñanlles de comer, para que non pasasen fame; noutros botaban ese día un gran pao ao lume, para que quentasen no caso de teren frío; noutros era considerado pecado varrer pola noite a cociña porque se lles daba para atrás, impedíndo-lles que se acheguen á lareira; e noutros tense por acción inhumana pechar de golpe as cancelas ou portelos, porque se mancaban.

Se se busca nos libros de etnoloxía polas celebracións que se fan en Galiza con ocasión do "día de defuntos" atoparemos unha serie de costumes ancestrais própias da nosa nación. Desde o deixar un óco na mesa ou racións de comida e/ou bebida para os defuntos até facer colares coas castañas novas. A pouco que se pregunte a persoas de máis de corenta anos de diferentes puntos da nosa xeografía (Noia, Catoira, Cedeira, Muxía, Sanxenxo, Quiroga, Carballeda de Ávia...) lembrarán-nos que tamén era habitual polo día de Defuntos coller cabazas, tallarlles unhas caras feroces, poñerlles uns pauciños coma dentes e deixa-las nos camiños para asustar aos viandantes. Todo isto con ocasión da festa dos Defuntos, o dous de novembro. Este costume coincide co americano de Halloween e aínda co máis antigo celta do Samaín, no que eran os cranios dos inimigos os que brillaban na escuridade con candeas no seu interior.


En Galiza mesmo chéga-se a ver como a cabaza tallada séca-se e consérva-se para emprega-la como máscara no Entroido. A antiga festividade celta do Samaín foi descrita habitualmente como unha comuñón cos espíritos dos defuntos que, nesta data, terían autorización para camiñar entre os vivos. Abrían-se as portas entre este mundo e o Alén, dándolle á xente a posibilidade de se reuniren cos seus antepasados mortos.


A festa do Samaín, a máis importante do período precristián, marcaba para os celtas o comezo dun novo ano.


Nesa data prendían-se lumes sagrados frotando pólas de serbal e teixo, e con esta fogueira inicial alimentában-se as lareiras de todas as casas.


Polo Samain era costume baleirar nabos de grande tamaño – non foron cabazas até que chegaron de América - para poñer-lles dentro candeas. Nas Rías Baixas, os nenos xogaban tales días coma estes coas cabazas, facendo caras con elas, e poñéndolles pelo e bigotes con barbuxa de millo, antes de acender-lles velas. Varios séculos despois esta tradición, que se mantén aínda viva en Galiza, ten continuidade nas festas de Halloween, que exportaron aos Estados Unidos os irlandeses no século XIX.




(...)

Durante a noite do 31 de outubro os druidas (a casta sacerdotal dos celtas) recollían cunha fouce de ouro as baias do visco dos troncos de aciñeiras e carvallos. E por que unha fouce de ouro? Moi sinxelo. Os celtas consideraban a este metal como un metal enxebre, e era polo tanto o único que se podia utilizar para estes quefaceres. Unha vez subidos ao tronco dun carvallo ou aciñeira, os druidas cortaban baia por baia de visco mentres recitaban uns mantras, que seguramente eran para atribuir mais poder ao visco. Por desgraza, os druidas non deixaron restos escritos pois así, como dixo Xúlio César, "evitaban que o seu sistema de adestramento caise en mans do vulgo e que os estudantes descoidaran o exercizo da sua memória por confiar na palabra escrita".



Acto seguido os druidas depositaban esas baias nun caldeiriño ou tiraban-as a un manto branco que sustiña outro druida no chan. A descrición deste ritual debemos-lla ao historiador Plínio. Despois, esas baias tan especiais terian indubidábeis poderes curativas para a xente, e para as suas elaboracións máxicas. Era nesta festa onde os druidas podían comer carne de cocho e beber viño. Durante eses días antes do aninovo, tiñan lugar sacrifizos de animais: pola data había que comezar a almacenar para facer fronte aos duros meses que viñan por diante. Estes sacrifizos de animais facian-se co obxectivo de se provisionaren de carne e de pel para o inverno. Era a sua peculiar matanza, como a que se celebra en Galiza por San Martiño.



A noite do 31 de outubro está relacionada moi directamente co mundo dos mortos e esta crenza estaba moi arraigada no povo celta. Eles crian que esa noite, unha "porta" se abría, e a dimensión dos vivos ficaba en comunicación coa dimensión do mundo dos mortos, alomenos por unhas horas. Durante este período non se podia sair da comunidade, pois nesta noite, a comunidade non se puña en contacto con outras comunidades se non que se puñan en contacto cos seus próprios antepasados. Durante esas horas, podia-se tocar, apalpar e mesmo se podía traspasar ao mundo dos mortos. Por iso en toda a aldea había fogueiras. Non se acendian coa intención de horrorizar aos malos espíritos, se non que se acendian para poder guiar aos mortos na escuridade da noite, para que atopasen aos seus parentes e lares, e se puidesen quencer co calor do lume do lar.

Os celtas, esa noite, amoreaban as caveiras dos seus mortos (e tamén dos seus inimigos) e as pintaban. En Galiza temos nas encrucilladas amoreamentos de pedras (os milladoiros) e ten-se o costume de depositar unha pedra e pedir un desexo. Existe un milladoiro no camiño de Santiago, famoso porque posue unha grande cruz de ferro. O feito de depositar unha pedra alá é sinal de que non se terá mala fortuna durante o que fica de viaxe, e por iso os pelegríns adoitan levar unha pedra desde a sua lugar de orixe, ou ben a apañan antes de chegar ao milladoiro.

Outro costume clásicamente galego é o de dar de comer á xente que ven ao enterro. O convite fúnebre, o mesmo que o banquete fúnebre, non son privativos de Galiza, pois tamén existiron en Irlanda, en Astúrias e noutros países. En opinión de Murguía eran unha especie de holocausto que viña directamente dos ritos funerários célticos e obedecían ao precepto popular de considerar sagradas as almas dos devanceiros.

Moitos coidan que as almas das persoas que morreron volvían por veces a este mundo. Foi moi común en Galiza a crenza na aparición das ánimas xa sexa con fasquía de bolboretas ou de aves comúns, xa de animais e réptiles. Segundo a doutrina dos druídas (metempsicose), as almas non finan senón que pasan duns a outros; e hai escritores que afirman que a Vía Láctea chámase no noso idioma "Camiño de Santiago" porque é, en realidade, o camiño que levan as almas dos mortos cara á rexión das sombras, unha procesión de estrelas ou multitude de almas.

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The company provides a single [url=http://muachunggiatot.com/thoi-trang.html]gia re hom nay[/url] for every single day in every and each and every of the marketplaces it serves. The Groupon operates as an assurance settlement utilizing ThePoint's program: if a specified assortment of men and women signal up for the offer, then the supply will get to be available to all if the predetermined minimum is not accomplished, no one particular will get the offer that working day. This minimizes chance for suppliers, who can take care of the discount coupons as sum reductions as effectively as revenue advertising equipment. Groupon helps make money by attempting to preserve about half the revenue the shopper pays for the coupon.

For occasion, an $80 therapeutic massage could be purchased by the client for $40 by means of Groupon, and then Groupon and the retailer would break up the $forty. That is, the retailer presents a massage valued at $eighty and will get approximately $20 from Groupon for it (beneath a fifty%/fifty% split up). Or, if $240 really value of residence portray providers is attained by the consumer for $fifty by indicates of Groupon, then the organization will get $20 five and Groupon retains $20 5. The consumer will get the therapeutic therapeutic massage, or the home portray solutions, in these illustrations, from the retailer for which they at initial compensated out $forty (or $50) to Groupon. There are distinct organizations to which Groupon at very first did not provide you its firms, which involves getting pictures ranges and strip clubs nevertheless, capturing ranges have been showcased on Groupon.

In distinction to labeled selling, the support company does not pay out any upfront value to take part: Groupon collects individualized knowledge from ready clients and then contacts only individuals buyers, mostly by working day-to-working day e mail, who may perhaps be fascinated in a distinct solution or service provider.

Groupon employs a large quantity of copywriters who draft descriptions for the delivers showcased by electronic mail and on the internet website. Groupon's advertising textual material for the 'deals' has been witnessed as a contributing aspect to the acceptance of the world wide web website, featuring a unique mix of complete truth-examining and witty humor.

Owing to Groupon's market currently currently being primarily composed of female clients, the discounts are usually concentrated on the all round overall health, health and class marketplaces.

There are likely troubles with the business product. For illustration, a profitable offer could temporarily swamp a little organization with too several customers, risking a likelihood that buyers will be dissatisfied, or that there will not be ample solution to fulfill up with the require. Gap, a massive garments retailer, was able to take care of 445,000 coupon codes in a countrywide deal (although it seasoned server issues at one particular distinct amount), but a far more compact business could become abruptly flooded with consumers. One particular particular espresso store in Portland, Oregon struggled with an improve in customers for three months, when it marketed shut to a single,000 Groupons on the one doing work day it was equipped, in accordance to a single report. In reaction to comparable troubles, Groupon officers issue that 'deal' subscriptions should to be capped in progress to a affordable number.

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